First of all, *hugs*. I've worked on both the vendor and client sides of research, so I've had the opportunity to work with many different teams with varying levels of interest in market research. When I'm working with a team that isn't "bought-in" on the value of market research, it's usually due to one of the following reasons:
Much like market research, empathizing with your target audience is the first step to solving this problem. If a team says something like "Customers don't know what they want," or "We don't have time to take a step back," consider it an invitation to talk about what's working well in their process and what could be better. Learn what's working really well for them and where there are opportunities in their process. See if you can identify a problem they want to solve and make market research the solution.
For me, I usually have luck leveraging the forward-leaning strategic value of market research in the product development lifecycle in these kinds of situations. The best products stem from exposing a pain point in the market and developing an innovative solution. It's a lot more efficient to do the research and discover the pain points than it is to A/B test and hope for the best. Good luck!
Make key stakeholders part of the process before you launch studies, and afterwards, leverage internal communications channels and technology to bring the voice of the customer and your learnings alive for all teams.
Research is an opportunity to help people feel more connected to the work and the impact they're making in the lives of their customers and prospects. Let the work shine.
Always come with data insights proving how your research will drive some numbers up.
Why do you want to do the research?